Friday, 27 November 2015

Climate change: The European Union towards COP21 and beyond

Developing countries – especially the most vulnerable – need a robust deal at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris, as well as an ambitious action plan to ramp up action afterwards. The European Union (EU) can help finalise the deal by offering more in the key negotiating fora, especially on adaptation support and finance. But the real work will begin after Paris.

As COP21 gets underway, this latest briefing comes from the European Think Tanks Group – written by Steffen Bauer (DIE), Clara Brandi (DIE), Simon Maxwell (ODI) and Tancrède Voituriez (IDDRI) – and looks at the challenges and opportunities for EU climate action at COP21 and beyond.

While the EU must support developing countries with mitigation and adaptation, climate change and energy have become central issues in foreign and security policy, and the EU needs to look beyond 2030 and focus on sustainability issues up to 2050, both within Europe and beyond its borders.

Read or download the report via the German Development Institute

Finding solutions at COP21 and beyond

(1) A dynamic and legally binding agreement

The Paris Agreement must be balanced, durable, dynamic and transparent. To be a credible frontrunner, the EU must provide a coordinated and ambitious contribution of annual public climate finance to the $100 billion political target. The EU should give adaptation the same priority and urgency in the Paris Agreement as it does mitigation. It should ensure that commitments made at COP21 are complementary to the Addis Ababa agreements on financing for sustainable development.

(2) Ambition and consistency

The EU should be open to raising the ambition of its 2030 emissions target and a 55- 60% reduction target by the mid-2030s. But this requires a nuanced approach to governing EU climate policy – and a high-level commitment to an Energy Union strategy.

(3) Accountability for the private sector and local action

A comprehensive framework for non-state and subnational actors would improve transparency, facilitate knowledge exchange and inspire governments to increase their ambitions. To accelerate progress, we need a coalition of ‘friends of the action agenda’ and the EU could mobilise SMART climate action.

Thursday, 16 July 2015

Why Europe needs a global strategy

Federica Mogherini, the UEU's High Representative for Foreign Policy and Security
[Unión Europea and Perú / Flickr]

The challenges facing Europe today have Implications global and require global solutions. From the Greek crisis to migration and climate change, the EU must seek answers beyond its borders, Argues the European Think Tanks Group.

Hidden in the small print of last week's European Council Conclusions - eclipsed by the crisis in Greece, the row about migration and the UK's bid to renegotiate the terms of its membership of the EU - was an important commitment to continuing the process of reflection leading to an "EU global strategy on foreign and security policy".

This gives Federica Mogherini, the former Italian Foreign Minister who is now the EU's external affairs chief, a mandate to set a new path for Europe in the wider world. However it is a path strewn with rocks, and One That Ms. Mogherini must contemplate with mixed feelings. Pressures are building on many fronts - Russia in the East, instability in the Middle East, failed states in Africa and global threats like climate change.

At the same time, Europe's many different interests and capabilities Repeatedly act as a barrier to collective action. The migration crisis offers a perfect example. Some countries just do not want more migrants. Others complain That much of the pressure results from illegal immigration rather than refugees. Others say the problem must be Tackled at the source with development and humanitarian aid. The best can be said is that Is that a small step has been taken, but that it will take more time for a worthwhile common position to emerge.

The fact is, seven years after the start of the financial crisis, the European Council is still stuck in disagreement. It is fragmented on interconnected issues, underlining once more that Europe's strategy for long term security and prosperity Requires concerted action across the full range of EU external and internal policies - from trade, finance, energy, climate and development policy to security and defense. The major challenges confronting Europe demand collective action at European level and regular strategic reviews.

European policy-making is not always quite so dire. The EU has adopted and recently confirmed sanctions against Russia, has worked well together in talks with Iran and has come together around a reasonably ambitious position on climate change. So, it can be done. What are the lessons that the EU and its member states shouldering learn?

First, They Need to be clear That a global strategy for Europe Requires a truly integrated approach. For example, the root causes of illegal migration and refugee flows across the Mediterranean can not be Tackled Solely with a security-driven approach compaction rising walls and navy operations. Without the right mix of EU tools and partnerships Europe will continuous to firefight with little hope or solutions. Together as the European Think Tanks Group we said in our report 'Our Collective Interest', published last September, that it is of utmost importance that the new European global strategy, in its ambition and language, is integrated and strategic, with the internal linking all aspects of external action.

Second, the EU and its member states shouldering be ruthless in targeting problems (and opportunities) That unequivocally demand collective action at the European level. Although it sought to go beyond a security-driven approach, the European Security Strategy from 2003 focused on threats with little sense of common stewardship of the world, its resources and its people.

Europe is still an enabling power in the world, Because of its integrated preventive and long-term approach to global public goods, shared well-being and prosperity. It's that thesis on the future of the EU depends.
Therefore we expect That the next strategy will mirror the ambition of the Sustainable Development Goals, currently being negotiated through the UN system. The EU shouldering equal take stock of its own internal failures and Those on its own doorstep. 'Our Collective Interest' highlights the need for the EU to contribute to a 21st century growth model that emphasises responsible trade and financial policy coordination.

Third, a key challenge for the global strategy will be to pick priorities by Identifying a small number of issues where the EU can really make a difference. Success in a few areas may just swing public opinion and political leadership behind the next round of joint EU action. Our research recommends that such priorities include the continuation of Europe's leadership in climate policy, facilitating legal migration and dealing with weak, fragile or failed states in its Neighbourhood.

The European Union faces hard and momentous choices at home and abroad. The outcome of the dire crisis in Greece will have far reaching Implications, such as on the international stage. Axis thinktank leaders deeply engaged in global policy, we do not underestimate the heavy lifting that will be required from Federica Mogherini, the EU Institutions and member states to make change happen. But we urge European leaders to show renewed determination to measure up to the scale and scope of the challenges Europe is facing that - together.

This opinion editorial was signed by:
  • Ewald Wermuth, European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM)
  • Giovanni Grevi, Fundacion para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Dialogo Exterior (Fride)
  • Dirk Messner, German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE)
  • Teresa Ribera, Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI)
  • Kevin Watkins, Overseas Development Institute (ODI)

This article was originally published in Euractiv on 03 Jul 2015